24/09/2010 21:55

L'Hébreu chez les Celtes : le hasard impossible

Les caractéristiques de la Linguistique Hébreu dans le Gallois (Welsh)



Les légendes Irlandaises sont compatibles avec la tradition originèle d'une origine Israélite. Elles pré-supposent être originaire du Moyen-Orient et parlent souvent d'une arrivée en Espagne via l'Afrique du Nord. Une légende juive marocaine raconte que quand les Dix Tribus ont été éxilées, une partie de la tribu d'Ephraïm à atteind le Maroc. Ils y ont règnés jusqu'au temps d'Ezra vers - 450. C'est à peu près à cette époque que les exilés Israélites, connus pour avoir été poussés en Espagne par les Phéniciens, ont progressés en masse vers l'Angleterre et l'Irlande. A beaucoup d'égards l'Afrique du Nord et l'Espagne, dans les temps reculés, ont été souvent éfficacement une seule entité.
Les Irlandais, les Ecossais et les Gallois ainsi que beaucoup de Britons et da Gaulois parlent ou parlaient des formes de Celtic. Le Celtic est considérée comme une langue indo-européenne apparenté au Latin. Les Celtes ont apparement reçus les aspects indo-européens de leurs langues de peuples qu'ils ont conquis sur le continent avant de continuer leur périple vers l'ouest. Les examens linguistiques de la langue Galloise et Irlandaise révèle une forme de Celtic dans laquelle il y a, sous-jacent, des éléments de language semblables à ceux qui sont trouvées en Afrique du Nord et au Moyen-Orient. Les langues d'Afrique du Nord sont classées comme Hamitiques / Chamitiques (de Ham / Cham, un des fils de Noé, voir Bereshit/Genèse 5.32 et suivants). L'Egyptien et le Berbère le sont aussi. Elles ont une affinité avec les langues Sémitiques et parfois les dialectes locaux de divers endroits du Moyen-Orient font apparaître des particularités Hamitique.
Des aspects du language Hamitique sont aussi trouvés dans l'Hébreu biblique mais ne sont pas particulièrement soulignés. La plupart des peuples Canaanites ont adoptés un language similaire à l'Hébreu mais ont cependant connus les langues Indo-Européennes et Hamitiques. L'utilisation de l'Hébreu par les Phéniciens ont des caractéristiques d'une langue étrangère qu'ils ont adoptée. Il existe aussi des dialectes Arabes qui sont Hamitique ou qui en révèlent un substrat. Forte est l'impression qu'il s'agit plus d'une différence académique ou emphatique que d'une différence de substance. Des dialectes Hébreux en Terre d'Israël ont aussi très bien pu absorber des éléments Hamitiques.
Selon W.H.Worrell "les langues Celtes Britaniques, surtout le Gallois courant, montre certaines reminiscences particulières des langues Hamitique et Sémitique qui sont sans précédent dans les langues Aryennes."

Pareillement, selon H.Wagner, "l'Irlandais a beaucoup de particularités en commun avec les langues non-Indo-Européennes, surtout avec le Hamito-Semitique ainsi qu'avec d'autres langues, Indo-Européennes celles-çi. Concernant les langues insulaires Celtes, les catégories grammaticales ont beaucoup d'affinités avec les langues non-Indo-Européennes, en particulier avec le Basque et le Berbère. La typologie comparative du Celtic insulaire qui à été initiée par Morris Jones et développée par Pokorny, G.B.Adams et moi-même, a révélée que la plupart des particularités singulières du Celtic insulaire rarement traçable dans d'autres langues Indo-Européennes ont des analogies avec les langues Basque, Berbère, Egyptienne, Sémitique et même Negro-Africaine. "Certaines particularités, d'une influence marginale seulement, de formes verbiales d'Irlandais Ancien, ne peuvent être compris qu'à la lumière du Hittite, Védic, Sankrit et d Grec Mycéens."
Aussi J.Morris Jones pense que "Les idiomes pré-Aryens qui vivent encore dans le Gallois et l'Irlandais sont dérivés d'une langue apparentée aux langues Egyptiennes."

The above linguistic remarks show that Insular Celtic (i.e. of Britain and Ireland as distinct from the Continental forms which were somewhat different) is consistent with the claims proposed herein: i.e. The original tongue of the Insular Celts was Semitic (Hebrew) which marginally was influenced by Mycenean Greek, Hittite, Indo-European (Sanskrit), Syrian, Mitanni, and what not. Heavy Hamitic influences may be attributable to those of some of the neighbouring peoples, such as the Canaanites, and Egyptians, and to having sojourned in a North African environment. In addition, the natives of Spain amongst whom the Insular Celts or a good portion of them once dwelt, traded with, and fought against, were also at least in part of North African Berber related Hamitic origin. This explanation may sound involved and complicated but it accords with the evidence when archaeological, anthropological, mythological, and linguistic findings are compared with each other. At all events the natives of Ireland and Wales must have used a Hamitic and/or Semitic tongue(s) before they came into contact with Continental Indo-European ones.
It was seen above that Irish and colloquial Welsh definitely have some type of underlying linguistic base that must only derive from Middle Eastern (Semitic) and/or North African Hamitic sources. This conclusion was derived from the quoted opinions of linguistic scientists still active in their field today.
It so happens that in the past there were others who held similar opinions but went further than their present-day continuers care to. They expressly related Celtic tongues to Hebrew!!!
A writer who signed his name "Glas" submitted a list of Welsh words with Hebrew origins in 1832 . The writer remarked that, "But the best proof of the Eastern descent of the ancient British is the close resemblance and connection existing between the Welsh and Hebrew languages, even at this day. As a proof of this we have extracted the following vocabulary of words in both tongues, so closely resembling each other in sound and sense as to leave no doubt whatever on the subject.
Many of these words, it will be found, have been transmitted from the Welsh, through the Anglo-Saxon into our modern English. It would be easy to swell their number..

Some of the examples adduced by the above writer were:

Aeth: He went, he is gone; hence = Athah
Aml: Plentiful, ample = Hamale
Ydom: the earth = Adamah
Awye: air, sky = auor, or
bu: it came to pass = bo boten, or potten : belly = beten.
brith: bright = barud
cas: hatred = caas (anger).
dafnu: to drop, or distill by drops = nataph, taph.

In 1675 Charles Edwards ("Hanes y Fydd") published A number of Welsh Cambro-Brittanic Hebraisms in which he shows that whole phrases in Welsh can be closely paralleled by whole phrases in Hebrew.

From the list of Charles Edwards, L.G.A. Roberts (1919) made a selection and we have selected examples from Roberts after slightly modernising the Hebrew transliterations : It should be noted that when account is taken for likely and known dialectical changes of pronounciation the examples given in effect show identical Welsh parallel phrases for the Hebrew original.

In Welsh: Gael hedd (Gen.31;47) meaning Geledd i.e. heap of testimony= in Hebrew : Galaed.

In Welsh: Bagad meaning "A troop cometh ?" (Gen.30;11) = in Hebrew  : Begad

In Welsh : Anudon : "Sans Dieu" = in Hebrew: Aen Adon.

In Welsh : Yni all sy dda : "Je Suis le Dieu Tout-Puissant" (Gen. 17;1) = in Hebrew: Ani El Saddai.

In Welsh : Llai iachu yngwyddd achau ni : "Ne le laissez pas vivre devant nos frères" (Gen. 31;32) = in Hebrew Loa yichei neged acheinu (Gen.31;32).

In Welsh : Ochoren ballodddi hoc-dena : "After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure?" = in Hebrew : Acharei belothi hedenah (Gen.18;12).

In Welsh : Bebroch fra am beneu ach ef, dyfet Deborah mam ianceth Ribecah meaning "When he fled from the face of his brother . But Deborah Rebecca's nurse died" (Gen. 35;7-8) = in Hebrew :  Beborcho mpnei achiv vetamath Deborah mayneceth Ribecah.

In Welsh: Yngan Job yscoli yscoli cynghaws i (Job 6;1,2) meaning "Job answered, O that my grief were thoroughly weighed" = in Hebrew:  Veya(g)n Eyub ....shocol yishocal ca(g)si

In Welsh: Amelhau bytheu chwi a bythau holl ufyddau chwi meaning "Et ils remplirons ta maison et les maisons de tes serviteurs" (Gen. 10;6) = in Hebrew: Umalu bathechoh and bathei col avedochoh.

In Welsh : Iachadd ni meaning "Thou hast healed me" = in Hebrew: hechiyatni.

In Welsh Nesa awyr peneu chwi meaning "Lif thou up the light of thy countenance" = in Hebrew: nasa aor panechoh.(Psalms 4;6.).

In Welsh An annos meaning "None did compel" = in Hebrew: ain ones. (Esther 1;8).

In Welsh As chwimwth meaning "an angry man" = in Hebrew: ish chamas (Psalms 140;12 Proverbs 16;29 meaning a wickedly-violent man).

In Welsh Be heulo, luerferfo (Job 6;4) meaning "When his candle shined ..... and by his light.." = in Hebrew: behilo, leoroe.

In Welsh Bwgythieu in gwarchaeni (Job 6;4) meaning "The terrors of God set themselves in array against me = in Hebrew: Biu(g)thi elohai ya-a(g)rchuni.

In Welsh : I far meaning "Shall be cursed" = Hebrew : Yu-ar, yuv-ar. (Numbers 22;6).

In Welsh Am geryddo fo meaning "At his reproof" = in Hebrew :im ge-arato.

Godfrey Hughes "The Celtic Druids" (1829) quotes from a certain Welsh Translation of the Bible in which similar examples as the above are apparent:

In Welsh By-lllwng Adon-ydb holl neuodh Jago meaning "The Lord has swallowed up all the tabernacles of Jacob" (Lamentations 2;2) = Hebrew : Balla(ng) Adoni eth col neoth Yacob.

In Welsh Dyrac buth-hi ai-i-sengyd meaning "The avenue of her dwelling he would go to tread" (Proverbs 7;8) = Hebrew : Derech baithah yitsa(ng)d.

In Welsh Py yw-o sy maeloc y-cavad I-a-ywoo savwyod yw-o maeloc y-cavad, Selah meaning "Who is the king of glory [attainment]? The LORD of hosts , he is the king of glory. Selah" (Psalms 24;10) = Hebrew: Mi hu zeh melec hacavod Y....Tsavaoth hu melec hacavod selah.

The affinity between Hebrew and Welsh was mentioned by a certain Dr. Davies (amongst others) and in the preface to his Welsh Grammar there was
a poem to the effect that:

He gladly deigns his countrymen to teach,
By well-weigh?d rules, the rudiments of speech;
That when the roots first of our own we gain,
The Hebrew tongue we thence may soon attain .

The Rev. Eliezer Williams (b.1754) wrote several works on the Celts and made several remarks (quoted by Roberts p.23):

"In the Hebrew...which the ancient British language greatly resembles... "The roots of most of the ancient British, or real Welsh, words may be regularly traced in the Hebrew.. "Scarcely a Hebrew root can be discovered that has not its corresponding derivative in the ancient British language...But not only..the words...their variations and inflections afford a much stronger proof of affinity...The plural number of nouns likewise is often formed in a similar manner in the Celtic by adding in (a contraction of ??: i.e.-IM which is the suffix used in Hebrew to form the masculine plural)...in the formation of sentences, and in the government of words...the same syntax might serve for both.....

Davies in "Mythology of the Ancient Druids" (p.94) asserts that "Taleisin, the chief Bard, declares that his lore had been detailed in Hebraic..."

In addition to the above Karel Jonging, "Comparing Welsh & Hebrew", (2000, The Netherlands) quoted from hundreds of examples in which the grammatical structure and characteristics of Welsh parallel those of the Hebrew.

It follows from all the above that though the language of the British Celts may have superficially conformed to an Indo-European type it had enough Semitic and Hebraic features to confirm the notion that Hebrew had been their original tongue. This explanation fits best of all the facts in our possession taken from all disciplines concerned with the subject.
Traduction de : 
Hebrew Linguistic Traits in Welsh
The Question of Alphabetical Lettering
Adapted from "Lost Israelite Identity" Chapter Seventeen - by Yair Davidiy
Brit-Am contact: Yair Davidiy POB 595  Jerusalem 91004 Israel.
Texte original : britam.org/language.html






A Lire en ligne / Full book online

The History of the Jews in New Zealand

by Lazarus Morris Goldman 1958


 La Vraie langue Celtique de H.Boudet 1886